Le Champ des Possible is the idea that innovation entails being curious about everything, and broadening our field of investigation beyond conventional borders. For Art & Build Architects it is crucial to share knowledge, experiences, best practice, and innovatory ideas, so as to create the conditions for progress and leave a better inheritance for future generations. In the course of this new conference, which was held on 22 May 2019 as part of the We are Real Estate fair,  Nils Vanhauwaert, (COO, Upgrade Estate), Kristiaan Borret (Master Builder in Brussels), Xavier Tackoen (CEO, Espaces Mobilités), Robert Winkel (CEO, MEI Architects & Planners) and Yves Weinand (Architect and civil engineer, Professor at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne), spoke about the changing of cities.

Technical sheet of this architecture video clip
Journalist : Emma C. Dessouroux
Cameramen : Emanuel Pinto / EpiProd

Editing : Emma C. Dessouroux / Emanuel Pinto / Baudry Deglimes
Direction : Emma C. Dessouroux
Production : Les Délires Productions

Translation : Straker Media
Subtitles : Les Délires Productions

Speakers : David Roulin, CEO, Art & Build Architects – Nils Vanhauwaert, COO, Upgrade Estate – Kristiaan Borret, Bouwmeester, bma.brussels – Xavier Tackoen, CEO, Espaces Mobilités – Robert Winkel, CEO MEI Architects & Planners – Yves Weinand, Ir. Architect, Professor, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

French Subtitles

1
00:00:06,400 –> 00:00:08,760
Ce qui nous intéressait ici,

2
00:00:08,840 –> 00:00:10,320
c’était de mettre en évidence

3
00:00:10,400 –> 00:00:14,240
le fait que le processus
de construction de la ville

4
00:00:14,320 –> 00:00:17,920
fait interagir un nombre
important de personnes

5
00:00:18,160 –> 00:00:19,600
dans des domaines très différents,

6
00:00:20,040 –> 00:00:22,720
c’est-à-dire qu’un projet urbanistique,

7
00:00:22,800 –> 00:00:23,920
un projet de construction,

8
00:00:24,000 –> 00:00:26,480
un projet de quartier ne se fait pas

9
00:00:26,560 –> 00:00:28,600
du fait de la pensée d’une seule personne

10
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mais de nombreux intervenants,

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00:00:30,600 –> 00:00:32,080
des gens qui parlent de mobilité,

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00:00:32,320 –> 00:00:36,320
des gens qui font de l’architecture,
de l’urbanisme, des avocats,

13
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des gens qui gèrent

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la gouvernance du territoire,

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des opérateurs privés.

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Toutes ces personnes
interagissent entre elles

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et font qu’un projet
naît de cette interaction.

18
00:00:49,680 –> 00:00:50,840
Et c’est ça qui nous intéresse.

19
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C’est de montrer
cette intelligence collective

20
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qui naît de l’interaction
entre les individus

21
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et donc mettre ici 5 personnalités

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qui ont chacun dans leur domaine
une expertise

23
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et innovent chacun dans leur domaine,

24
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c’est démontrer justement
que tout ça est lié

25
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et que chacun n’est pas dans son coin,

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que plus on partage, plus on s’enrichit

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de ce savoir-faire, de cette connaissance

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et on élève le débat

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et on crée de la valeur ajoutée.

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00:01:21,840 –> 00:01:23,160
Nous sommes surtout actifs

31
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dans le logement pour étudiants,

32
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nous sommes très connus
avec notre marque « Up kot »

33
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et nous y voyons encore
énormément de possibilités.

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L’étudiant est aussi
le futur habitant de la ville,

35
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et il a aussi ses souhaits
et besoins spécifiques.

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Le savoir-faire que nous apprenons de cela

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nous pouvons l’adopter

38
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dans de nouveaux concepts,

39
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par exemple « Het Upliving » est
un nouveau concept pour nous.

40
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C’est un concept de logement
pour les jeunes professionnels.

41
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Nous constatons cela avec les étudiants
qui occupent nos kots.

42
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Ils ont terminé leurs études,
mais quid après ?

43
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Ils disent qu’ils aimeraient
rester vivre en ville

44
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à Gand ou à Bruxelles,

45
00:02:01,000 –> 00:02:03,080
mais ils ont aussi
des demandes spécifiques,

46
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des souhaits spécifiques :

47
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continuer à cohabiter avec deux amis,
avec leur copine, en couple,

48
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mais ils n’ont pas envie
non plus de s’engager

49
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dans une location à long terme.

50
00:02:11,480 –> 00:02:12,800
Donc, comment allons-nous résoudre cela ?

51
00:02:12,880 –> 00:02:14,480
Évidemment, c’est une demande qui

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nous vient très souvent,

53
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et nous allons donc développer
un nouveau concept pour cela.

54
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Nous savons qu’il y a un marché
à explorer pour cela.

55
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Aujourd’hui le long du canal,

56
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on construit beaucoup d’immeubles.

57
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Moi je pense qu’aujourd’hui à Bruxelles,

58
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« Le champ des possibles » est déjà ouvert.

59
00:02:32,720 –> 00:02:34,960
Je pense qu’il y a beaucoup
de changements dans la ville,

60
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qu’il y a une bonne volonté,

61
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qu’il y a beaucoup de dynamique

62
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et, de là, je suis extrêmement optimiste.

63
00:02:41,880 –> 00:02:44,560
Je pense que Bruxelles est en train
de changer fondamentalement.

64
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J’ai beaucoup plus d’inquiétude

65
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pour ce qui entoure les villes
en matière de mobilité

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parce qu’on va avoir des villes
qui vont regagner en intérêt

67
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au travers de tous
les défis qu’on connaît,

68
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énergétique, climatique, etc.

69
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Et aujourd’hui on voit
qu’il y a un mécanisme

70
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qui est en train de se mettre en place

71
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et que de plus en plus de personnes

72
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vont dans le sens de pratiquer

73
00:03:03,160 –> 00:03:04,240
des mobilités alternatives,

74
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alors je vais dire qu’elles vont pratiquer

75
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des mobilités combinées,

76
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c’est-à-dire que l’on a toujours
des gens qui vont utiliser la voiture

77
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mais vont la combiner
avec d’autres moyens de transport

78
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et finalement vont s’affranchir
de la possession automobile

79
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parce que ce qui tue autant nos villes,

80
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c’est autant les véhicules en circulation

81
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que ceux en stationnement.

82
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Aujourd’hui un véhicule

83
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reste 95 % de son temps stationné

84
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et ça occupe un espace très important.

85
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Il est évident que pour certaines
catégories de population,

86
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pour certains besoins,
la voiture, en tout cas

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les déplacements motorisés
sont encore nécessaires,

88
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mais on voit tout le potentiel aujourd’hui

89
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de modes de transport traditionnels,
comme le transport public

90
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mais certainement le regain du vélo,
du vélo électrique

91
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et des nouvelles mobilités
de type voitures partagées,

92
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trottinettes électriques.

93
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On a vraiment un potentiel
très important de changer la manière

94
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dont nos villes sont organisées.

95
00:03:52,240 –> 00:03:57,240
Je pense que ces 10 dernières années,

96
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il y a eu à Bruxelles un débat
sur le développement urbain,

97
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et ce débat peut être relié à un nombre.

98
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Le nombre 10.000.

99
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Le nombre du futur est 2.

100
00:04:09,800 –> 00:04:15,160
10.000, c’est le nombre
de nouveaux habitants

101
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qui se sont ajoutés par an
ces 10 dernières années.

102
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La densification est
tout en haut de l’agenda.

103
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Nous devons trouver de la place

104
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pour 10.000 nouveaux habitants par an.

105
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Nous devons prévoir des infrastructures
pour 10.000 nouveaux habitants par an.

106
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Cela veut dire qu’il faut densifier.

107
00:04:29,200 –> 00:04:32,320
Le grand récit du développement urbain
des années passées

108
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a été la densification
de la croissance démographique.

109
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Je pense qu’aujourd’hui,

110
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un nouveau débat se présente

111
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et ce nouveau paradigme est le nombre 2.

112
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2, c’est la hausse moyenne de température

113
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dont nous savons qu’elle va se produire

114
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à cause du changement climatique.

115
00:04:52,600 –> 00:04:54,480
En ville, ce sera
même peut-être 3 à 4 degrés.

116
00:04:55,640 –> 00:04:58,400
Je pense que c’est cela
qui doit devenir le moteur

117
00:04:58,480 –> 00:05:00,680
de notre nouvelle vision
du développement urbain.

118
00:05:03,080 –> 00:05:04,200
Le « champ des possibles »,

119
00:05:04,280 –> 00:05:08,280
c’est que les villes sont
le seul territoire où c’est possible.

120
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Pourquoi ? Parce qu’elles sont denses,

121
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elles vivent de la proximité,

122
00:05:12,520 –> 00:05:13,800
elles vivent des contacts humains,

123
00:05:13,880 –> 00:05:16,960
elles vivent de la densité
et de la mixité des fonctions.

124
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Et tout ce qu’on a mal fait

125
00:05:19,080 –> 00:05:21,960
en matière d’urbanisation
avec le fonctionnalisme,

126
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le fait de mettre
des fonctions différentes

127
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sur des territoires
sans permettre la mixité,

128
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rend impossible
des mobilités alternatives.

129
00:05:28,120 –> 00:05:29,960
Donc les villes sont
« le champ des possibles »,

130
00:05:30,040 –> 00:05:31,840
elles vont aller vers ce possible

131
00:05:31,920 –> 00:05:34,120
parce qu’elles ont tous les ingrédients
pour y arriver.

132
00:05:34,200 –> 00:05:35,920
Encore faut-il maintenant
bien associer les ingrédients

133
00:05:36,000 –> 00:05:36,840
pour que cela fonctionne.

134
00:05:36,920 –> 00:05:38,760
Je pense que nous devons
voir la densification,

135
00:05:38,840 –> 00:05:41,400
par exemple à Bruxelles,
de façon plus large.

136
00:05:41,680 –> 00:05:42,760
Cela concerne la seconde couronne.

137
00:05:42,840 –> 00:05:44,600
Nous devons examiner
quelles sont, là aussi,

138
00:05:44,680 –> 00:05:47,000
les possibilités de densification,

139
00:05:47,080 –> 00:05:48,920
pour que toute cette densification

140
00:05:49,000 –> 00:05:51,240
ne se fasse pas dans les mêmes quartiers.

141
00:05:52,080 –> 00:05:55,960
Une densification maîtrisée,
voilà un bon modèle pour l’avenir.

142
00:05:56,040 –> 00:05:59,920
Je pense que la « construction circulaire »
va devenir beaucoup plus fréquente.

143
00:06:00,000 –> 00:06:02,200
Nous ne pouvons pas traiter les bâtiments

144
00:06:02,280 –> 00:06:04,200
comme des produits jetables.

145
00:06:04,280 –> 00:06:07,200
Nous allons devoir réfléchir
à comment réutiliser les bâtiments,

146
00:06:07,280 –> 00:06:10,920
comment conserver
des bâtiments plus anciens,

147
00:06:11,000 –> 00:06:12,440
comment réutiliser les matériaux,

148
00:06:12,520 –> 00:06:15,680
mais aussi comment,
dans les nouvelles constructions,

149
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anticiper l’adaptabilité future.

150
00:06:18,880 –> 00:06:20,480
Je pense que la construction circulaire

151
00:06:20,560 –> 00:06:22,720
est un thème très important pour le futur.

152
00:06:22,800 –> 00:06:25,000
J’aimerais montrer quelques projets

153
00:06:25,080 –> 00:06:28,120
dans lesquels il y a en fait 2 choses

154
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qui sont en train de changer
dans les villes.

155
00:06:30,440 –> 00:06:31,720
La première chose,

156
00:06:31,800 –> 00:06:32,880
c’est l’ancienne scission qu’on faisait

157
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entre le trafic domicile-travail
et l’aspect récréatif.

158
00:06:35,720 –> 00:06:37,840
C’est le schéma monofonctionnel,

159
00:06:37,920 –> 00:06:39,880
dont on se distancie de plus en plus.

160
00:06:39,960 –> 00:06:41,480
Toutes ces fonctions différentes

161
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sont de plus en plus mélangées.

162
00:06:42,880 –> 00:06:44,560
Dans une petite structure,

163
00:06:44,640 –> 00:06:46,240
mélanger est très important.

164
00:06:46,520 –> 00:06:49,040
Officiellement, on parle de « mixed use »,

165
00:06:49,120 –> 00:06:50,600
j’en montre 2 projets.

166
00:06:50,680 –> 00:06:53,000
L’autre aspect qui devient

167
00:06:53,080 –> 00:06:54,680
de plus en plus important

168
00:06:54,760 –> 00:06:59,440
c’est le regard monolithique
sur les bâtiments.

169
00:07:00,000 –> 00:07:02,120
Un bâtiment qui en fait
interagit peu avec son contexte

170
00:07:02,200 –> 00:07:04,000
et est uniquement fonctionnel,

171
00:07:04,640 –> 00:07:07,080
c’est aussi une chose
dont on se distancie de plus en plus.

172
00:07:07,160 –> 00:07:09,280
Maintenant, on conçoit des bâtiments

173
00:07:09,480 –> 00:07:11,120
qui ont une identité.

174
00:07:11,200 –> 00:07:14,360
Au final, on veut mélanger

175
00:07:14,440 –> 00:07:19,320
travail, logement,
aspect récréatif, trafic,

176
00:07:19,400 –> 00:07:22,720
mais aussi enseignement
dans un petit noyau.

177
00:07:22,800 –> 00:07:26,320
On veut ajouter aux bâtiments existants

178
00:07:26,400 –> 00:07:28,240
de nouveaux bâtiments
qui ont une forte identité.

179
00:07:28,320 –> 00:07:30,400
Je pense que nous devons aussi travailler

180
00:07:30,480 –> 00:07:33,800
à l’effet d’îlot thermique de la ville.

181
00:07:33,880 –> 00:07:35,640
Je pense que nous allons devoir prévoir

182
00:07:35,720 –> 00:07:37,280
plus d’espaces verts,
de la verdure disséminée,

183
00:07:37,360 –> 00:07:41,320
dans la ville dans les années à venir.

184
00:07:41,400 –> 00:07:43,800
Ce sont tous des changements

185
00:07:43,880 –> 00:07:47,240
qui ont pour but de préparer nos villes

186
00:07:47,320 –> 00:07:49,920
au changement climatique

187
00:07:50,000 –> 00:07:51,960
qui est en train de s’opérer.

188
00:07:58,280 –> 00:07:59,680
Le problème sur nos territoires,

189
00:07:59,760 –> 00:08:01,880
c’est que surtout
dans le cas de Bruxelles,

190
00:08:01,960 –> 00:08:03,560
la gouvernance institutionnelle

191
00:08:03,640 –> 00:08:05,440
crée une tension territoriale,

192
00:08:05,520 –> 00:08:08,040
une concurrence territoriale
entre 3 régions

193
00:08:08,120 –> 00:08:11,720
qui veulent chacune obtenir
un maximum de résidents, d’emplois etc…

194
00:08:11,800 –> 00:08:13,800
Et malheureusement,
ce n’est pas très compatible.

195
00:08:13,880 –> 00:08:15,160
Mais Bruxelles

196
00:08:15,240 –> 00:08:16,800
doit prendre son avenir en main

197
00:08:16,880 –> 00:08:19,760
et revaloriser la qualité
qu’elle a intrinsèquement

198
00:08:19,840 –> 00:08:21,440
en tant que ville métropole,

199
00:08:21,520 –> 00:08:22,400
que ville mondiale.

200
00:08:22,480 –> 00:08:24,080
Le Brabant wallon

201
00:08:24,160 –> 00:08:25,400
est en train de suffoquer

202
00:08:25,480 –> 00:08:27,240
sous sa propre mobilité,

203
00:08:27,320 –> 00:08:30,760
parce qu’on oublie que la plupart
des gens qui habitent ces territoires

204
00:08:30,840 –> 00:08:33,880
ne viennent plus à Bruxelles,
ils travaillent dans le Brabant wallon

205
00:08:33,960 –> 00:08:36,400
ou ils travaillent du Brabant wallon
vers le Brabant flamand

206
00:08:36,480 –> 00:08:37,760
mais on dit qu’ils rejoignent Bruxelles.

207
00:08:37,840 –> 00:08:38,680
C’est faux.

208
00:08:38,760 –> 00:08:39,920
Ils rejoignent le ring de Bruxelles

209
00:08:40,000 –> 00:08:42,000
qui est en quelque sorte
le ring de Belgique

210
00:08:42,080 –> 00:08:45,120
et donc ils participent
à cette immobilité métropolitaine

211
00:08:45,200 –> 00:08:48,160
qui suffoque, mais globalement, Bruxelles,

212
00:08:48,240 –> 00:08:49,480
et peu de gens le savent en fait,

213
00:08:49,560 –> 00:08:51,680
il y a moins
de voitures en circulation

214
00:08:51,760 –> 00:08:53,840
à Bruxelles aujourd’hui
qu’il y a 10 ou 20 ans.

215
00:08:54,200 –> 00:08:56,000
Mais il y a plus de congestion

216
00:08:56,080 –> 00:08:59,400
parce qu’on a fait aussi un choix
de rééquilibrer l’espace public

217
00:08:59,480 –> 00:09:02,000
et de donner plus de place
aux transports publics, aux vélos,

218
00:09:02,080 –> 00:09:03,640
qui font que les choses ont changé,

219
00:09:03,720 –> 00:09:05,200
donc inévitablement

220
00:09:05,280 –> 00:09:06,400
dans le Brabant wallon,

221
00:09:06,480 –> 00:09:08,880
le Brabant flamand,
les choses vont se détériorer.

222
00:09:08,960 –> 00:09:11,840
Les gens peuvent continuer,
peuvent faire le choix de s’y implanter,

223
00:09:11,920 –> 00:09:14,080
les entreprises, les citoyens
de s’implanter là-bas

224
00:09:14,160 –> 00:09:15,120
mais en connaissance de cause.

225
00:09:15,200 –> 00:09:17,480
Les choses ne vont faire
que fortement se dégrader

226
00:09:17,560 –> 00:09:18,760
et l’accessibilité des villes

227
00:09:18,840 –> 00:09:20,840
devra se faire autrement qu’en voiture

228
00:09:20,920 –> 00:09:22,840
parce que les villes vont
avoir besoin de se protéger.

229
00:09:23,600 –> 00:09:26,200
Je crois que l’on doit
se soucier de l’origine

230
00:09:26,280 –> 00:09:28,560
des matériaux de construction
qu’on utilise,

231
00:09:28,640 –> 00:09:32,080
c’est-à-dire de l’énergie
qui est en fait utilisée

232
00:09:32,160 –> 00:09:33,840
pour les produire ou pas,

233
00:09:33,920 –> 00:09:36,800
de l’empreinte carbone sur notre planète

234
00:09:36,880 –> 00:09:39,120
et, comme c’est déjà le cas
dans l’alimentaire,

235
00:09:39,200 –> 00:09:41,680
il faut orienter les architectes

236
00:09:41,760 –> 00:09:43,920
vers une utilisation consciente

237
00:09:44,000 –> 00:09:45,560
de matériaux durables.

238
00:09:45,640 –> 00:09:47,400
Donc à ce titre-là,

239
00:09:47,480 –> 00:09:50,280
le bois est un matériau renouvelable

240
00:09:50,360 –> 00:09:53,840
et c’est quelque chose qui peut intéresser
nos villes dans le futur

241
00:09:53,920 –> 00:09:55,880
puisque lorsqu’on construit en bois,

242
00:09:55,960 –> 00:09:57,880
on ne doit pas forcément le montrer.

243
00:09:57,960 –> 00:10:01,080
Je pense qu’une structure
portante d’un immeuble

244
00:10:01,160 –> 00:10:03,440
ou même d’un bâtiment en hauteur,

245
00:10:03,520 –> 00:10:04,440
peut être en bois

246
00:10:04,520 –> 00:10:06,440
sans que forcément la façade

247
00:10:06,520 –> 00:10:07,680
de ce bâtiment

248
00:10:07,760 –> 00:10:10,200
soit une façade en bois visible, etc.

249
00:10:10,280 –> 00:10:12,640
Donc ici on veut vraiment accroître

250
00:10:12,720 –> 00:10:14,200
la quantité de bois utilisée

251
00:10:14,280 –> 00:10:15,760
dans la construction

252
00:10:15,840 –> 00:10:16,920
afin d’augmenter

253
00:10:17,000 –> 00:10:18,760
l’utilisation de la biomasse

254
00:10:18,840 –> 00:10:19,720
et ne laisser

255
00:10:19,800 –> 00:10:21,120
après la vie de ce bâtiment,

256
00:10:21,200 –> 00:10:23,040
parce qu’on doit penser aussi

257
00:10:23,120 –> 00:10:25,920
après l’usage du bâtiment
ce qu’il en advient,

258
00:10:26,000 –> 00:10:28,600
de ne pas, avoir une trace négative

259
00:10:28,680 –> 00:10:30,720
au niveau de l’environnement

260
00:10:30,800 –> 00:10:32,160
ou par rapport à la planète.

261
00:10:32,240 –> 00:10:33,640
Avec Yves Weinand,

262
00:10:33,720 –> 00:10:35,360
on a étudié un projet assez ambitieux

263
00:10:35,440 –> 00:10:36,680
pour la ville de Liège :

264
00:10:36,760 –> 00:10:39,640
la nouvelle « Halle des Foires »
de Coronmeuse.

265
00:10:41,080 –> 00:10:43,520
C’est un concours qu’on n’a pas gagné

266
00:10:43,600 –> 00:10:45,720
mais ça nous a permis de faire

267
00:10:45,800 –> 00:10:48,040
une étude un peu poussée

268
00:10:48,120 –> 00:10:51,360
sur l’application de ces recherches

269
00:10:51,440 –> 00:10:53,880
à l’université, dans la construction,

270
00:10:53,960 –> 00:10:56,680
pour un projet qui aurait pu marquer

271
00:10:56,760 –> 00:10:59,280
le devenir de la ville de Liège

272
00:10:59,360 –> 00:11:02,200
dans une nouvelle dynamique,
une nouvelle industrie

273
00:11:02,520 –> 00:11:04,760
qui remplace l’industrie traditionnelle

274
00:11:05,360 –> 00:11:06,840
de la métallurgie.

275
00:11:06,920 –> 00:11:09,960
Ici, nous scannons des arbres sur pied,

276
00:11:10,200 –> 00:11:13,080
nous connaissons le descriptif précis

277
00:11:13,160 –> 00:11:15,240
de la forme naturelle de cet arbre

278
00:11:15,320 –> 00:11:17,440
et nous arrivons à lier cette forme

279
00:11:17,520 –> 00:11:20,680
à l’emplacement définitif d’une pièce

280
00:11:20,760 –> 00:11:23,000
dans une construction architecturale.

281
00:11:23,280 –> 00:11:25,240
Donc nous avons proposé

282
00:11:25,320 –> 00:11:27,320
un bâtiment à grande échelle

283
00:11:27,400 –> 00:11:30,640
où nous conservons tous les éléments

284
00:11:30,720 –> 00:11:32,320
tels qu’ils existent dans la nature

285
00:11:32,400 –> 00:11:33,640
pour les introduire

286
00:11:33,720 –> 00:11:35,080
dans des éléments porteurs

287
00:11:35,160 –> 00:11:36,920
comme par exemple une poutre treillis

288
00:11:37,000 –> 00:11:39,000
ou des colonnes post assemblées.

289
00:11:39,760 –> 00:11:42,360
Et là, on arrive à faire chuter le prix,

290
00:11:42,440 –> 00:11:45,040
par exemple uniquement
pour une structure portante,

291
00:11:45,120 –> 00:11:46,600
au quart du prix normal.

292
00:11:46,680 –> 00:11:48,680
C’est quelque chose de très intéressant

293
00:11:48,760 –> 00:11:50,040
d’avoir 1 mètre cube de bois

294
00:11:50,120 –> 00:11:51,880
aux alentours de 130 €

295
00:11:51,960 –> 00:11:56,080
plutôt que du bois laminé-collé
aux alentours de 1.500 € par mètre cube.

296
00:11:56,160 –> 00:11:59,680
Selon moi, les opportunités
pour l’architecture

297
00:11:59,760 –> 00:12:02,120
se situent dans l’apport
de valeurs ajoutées,

298
00:12:02,200 –> 00:12:05,960
pas dans l’exercice pur
du métier d’architecte

299
00:12:06,040 –> 00:12:08,240
mais voir plus loin
que la discipline en soi.

300
00:12:08,320 –> 00:12:10,080
Cela veut dire qu’il faut
aussi être intéressé

301
00:12:10,160 –> 00:12:13,960
par le développement de bâtiments,

302
00:12:14,040 –> 00:12:16,360
les financements, l’utilisation,

303
00:12:16,440 –> 00:12:18,640
le futur, et, très important :

304
00:12:18,720 –> 00:12:23,720
comment les bâtiments seront flexibles
dans le futur,

305
00:12:24,720 –> 00:12:26,680
et, très important aussi, la connaissance.

306
00:12:26,760 –> 00:12:28,240
Connaissance des réglementations,

307
00:12:28,960 –> 00:12:32,200
connaissance des lois qui vont changer.

308
00:12:32,280 –> 00:12:35,280
Ces 3 choses, le futur, la flexibilité,

309
00:12:36,320 –> 00:12:38,200
le fait de voir plus loin que le bâtiment,

310
00:12:38,280 –> 00:12:40,720
regarder aussi ce qui se passe
à l’avant du processus,

311
00:12:40,800 –> 00:12:42,680
et en même temps avoir
beaucoup de connaissances,

312
00:12:42,760 –> 00:12:44,480
je pense que ce sont
les choses les plus importantes

313
00:12:44,560 –> 00:12:48,440
pour l’architecture en général.

English Subtitles

1
00:00:06,400 –> 00:00:08,680
What interested us here

2
00:00:08,760 –> 00:00:11,280
was to cast some light on the fact

3
00:00:11,360 –> 00:00:14,160
that the process of constructing a city

4
00:00:14,240 –> 00:00:17,840
results in a significant
number of people interacting

5
00:00:18,120 –> 00:00:19,520
in very different fields,

6
00:00:19,960 –> 00:00:22,640
which means that an urban project,

7
00:00:22,720 –> 00:00:23,840
a construction project,

8
00:00:23,920 –> 00:00:26,400
a neighbourhood project, doesn’t get done

9
00:00:26,480 –> 00:00:28,520
as the result of one person’s thinking

10
00:00:28,880 –> 00:00:30,440
but by that of numerous stakeholders,

11
00:00:30,520 –> 00:00:32,000
by the people who talk about mobility,

12
00:00:32,240 –> 00:00:36,240
by the people who do the architecture,
by urban planners, lawyers,

13
00:00:37,120 –> 00:00:39,000
by the people who manage

14
00:00:39,080 –> 00:00:41,960
the administration of the area,

15
00:00:42,680 –> 00:00:44,360
by the private operators.

16
00:00:44,440 –> 00:00:46,360
All of these people
interact with each other

17
00:00:46,440 –> 00:00:49,520
and from this interaction
a project is born.

18
00:00:49,600 –> 00:00:50,760
And that is what interests us.

19
00:00:50,840 –> 00:00:53,160
We wish to show
this collective intelligence

20
00:00:53,240 –> 00:00:55,600
that is created by the interaction
between individuals

21
00:00:55,680 –> 00:00:59,560
and to show here 5 different personalities

22
00:00:59,640 –> 00:01:03,000
who each in their own fields
possess expertise

23
00:01:03,080 –> 00:01:05,000
and who each innovate in their own fields.

24
00:01:05,240 –> 00:01:06,360
This is about demonstrating

25
00:01:06,440 –> 00:01:09,480
that all this is connected

26
00:01:09,560 –> 00:01:11,240
and that nobody stays in his corner,

27
00:01:11,320 –> 00:01:12,640
that the more we share,

28
00:01:12,720 –> 00:01:14,840
the more we are enriched by this know-how,

29
00:01:14,920 –> 00:01:16,240
by this knowledge

30
00:01:16,440 –> 00:01:18,120
and we raise the level of debate

31
00:01:18,200 –> 00:01:19,880
and we create added value.

32
00:01:21,760 –> 00:01:23,080
We are mostly active

33
00:01:23,160 –> 00:01:24,600
in student accommodation housing,

34
00:01:24,680 –> 00:01:27,320
we’re well known for our « Up kot » brand

35
00:01:27,960 –> 00:01:31,800
and we can still see
huge possibilities with it.

36
00:01:32,000 –> 00:01:35,280
The student is also the future

37
00:01:35,360 –> 00:01:37,080
inhabitant of the city,

38
00:01:37,320 –> 00:01:40,240
and he also has his own wishes
and specific needs.

39
00:01:40,880 –> 00:01:42,440
The know-how we learn from this

40
00:01:42,720 –> 00:01:45,800
we can apply in new concepts

41
00:01:45,960 –> 00:01:48,160
for example « UpHet living »
is a new concept for us.

42
00:01:48,240 –> 00:01:50,680
It’s a living concept
for young professionals.

43
00:01:50,760 –> 00:01:52,480
We’ve noticed this with the students

44
00:01:52,640 –> 00:01:54,160
living in our student flats.

45
00:01:54,240 –> 00:01:55,800
They’ve finished their studies,

46
00:01:55,880 –> 00:01:56,720
so what now?

47
00:01:57,040 –> 00:01:58,200
They say they’d like to stay

48
00:01:58,280 –> 00:01:59,120
on living in the city

49
00:01:59,200 –> 00:02:00,480
in Ghent or in Brussels,

50
00:02:00,920 –> 00:02:01,760
but they’ve also got

51
00:02:01,840 –> 00:02:03,000
some specific requirements,

52
00:02:03,080 –> 00:02:04,600
some specific wishes:

53
00:02:04,680 –> 00:02:08,440
keep on cohabiting with two friends,
with their girlfriend, as a couple,

54
00:02:08,520 –> 00:02:11,160
though they don’t want to commit
to a long-term lease.

55
00:02:11,240 –> 00:02:12,720
So, how are we going to resolve that?

56
00:02:12,800 –> 00:02:14,400
It’s a request of course,

57
00:02:14,480 –> 00:02:15,840
that often comes our way,

58
00:02:15,920 –> 00:02:18,440
and so we’re going to develop
a new concept for that.

59
00:02:18,520 –> 00:02:19,760
We know that there’s a market

60
00:02:19,840 –> 00:02:22,000
to be explored for that.

61
00:02:22,560 –> 00:02:24,800
These days, all along the canal,

62
00:02:25,800 –> 00:02:28,040
they’re constructing a lot of buildings.

63
00:02:28,320 –> 00:02:30,240
I actually think
that in Brussels these days

64
00:02:30,320 –> 00:02:32,640
the « Field of Possibilities »
has already opened up.

65
00:02:32,720 –> 00:02:34,880
I think that there have been a lot
of changes in the city,

66
00:02:34,960 –> 00:02:36,520
that there is real determination,

67
00:02:36,600 –> 00:02:37,920
that there is a lot of dynamism,

68
00:02:38,000 –> 00:02:39,360
and with all that

69
00:02:39,440 –> 00:02:41,720
I am extremely optimistic.

70
00:02:41,800 –> 00:02:44,480
I think that Brussels is going through
fundamental change.

71
00:02:44,560 –> 00:02:46,160
I am much more worried

72
00:02:46,240 –> 00:02:48,840
about the areas surrounding the cities
on the issue of mobility

73
00:02:48,920 –> 00:02:51,640
because we’re going to have cities
that will regain interest

74
00:02:51,720 –> 00:02:53,600
from all the known challenges,

75
00:02:53,680 –> 00:02:55,680
energy, climate etc.

76
00:02:55,960 –> 00:02:57,960
And we can see these days
that there is a mechanism

77
00:02:58,040 –> 00:02:59,120
that’s being put in place

78
00:02:59,200 –> 00:03:00,880
and that more and more people

79
00:03:00,960 –> 00:03:03,000
are moving in the direction of using

80
00:03:03,080 –> 00:03:04,160
alternative transport.

81
00:03:04,240 –> 00:03:06,000
So I’m saying that
they’re going to make use

82
00:03:06,080 –> 00:03:08,280
of mixed mobility, meaning
that there’ll always be people

83
00:03:08,360 –> 00:03:10,480
who are going to use a car

84
00:03:10,560 –> 00:03:11,520
but who will combine it

85
00:03:11,600 –> 00:03:13,160
with other means of transport

86
00:03:13,240 –> 00:03:15,880
and who will end up freeing themselves
from car ownership

87
00:03:15,960 –> 00:03:18,040
because what is killing
so many of our cities,

88
00:03:18,120 –> 00:03:21,480
it’s as much the vehicles moving around
as those that are parked.

89
00:03:21,560 –> 00:03:23,040
A vehicle is currently parked

90
00:03:23,120 –> 00:03:25,080
95% of the time

91
00:03:25,160 –> 00:03:27,080
and that uses up a very important space.

92
00:03:27,360 –> 00:03:29,920
Clearly,
for certain population categories,

93
00:03:30,000 –> 00:03:31,000
for certain needs,

94
00:03:31,080 –> 00:03:33,440
the car, or motorised movements anyway,

95
00:03:33,520 –> 00:03:34,600
are still necessary,

96
00:03:34,680 –> 00:03:36,120
but now we can see all the potential

97
00:03:36,520 –> 00:03:39,360
of traditional forms of transport,

98
00:03:39,440 –> 00:03:41,840
such as public transport and certainly
the comeback of the bicycle,

99
00:03:41,920 –> 00:03:43,680
the electric bicycle
and new forms of mobility

100
00:03:43,760 –> 00:03:45,120
such as car-sharing,

101
00:03:45,200 –> 00:03:46,280
electric scooters.

102
00:03:46,360 –> 00:03:47,360
There is really huge

103
00:03:47,440 –> 00:03:48,840
potential for us to change the way

104
00:03:48,920 –> 00:03:50,480
our cities are organised.

105
00:03:52,160 –> 00:03:57,160
I think that in these past ten years,

106
00:03:57,240 –> 00:03:59,520
there’s been a debate in Brussels

107
00:03:59,600 –> 00:04:01,280
about urban development,

108
00:04:01,360 –> 00:04:04,600
and this debate is linked to a number.

109
00:04:04,680 –> 00:04:06,320
The number 10,000.

110
00:04:06,800 –> 00:04:08,920
The number of the future is 2.

111
00:04:09,720 –> 00:04:15,160
10,000, that’s
the number of new inhabitants

112
00:04:15,240 –> 00:04:17,880
who’ve been added in each
of the past ten years.

113
00:04:17,960 –> 00:04:19,240
Densification is at the top

114
00:04:19,320 –> 00:04:20,200
of the agenda.

115
00:04:20,280 –> 00:04:21,720
We have to find the room

116
00:04:21,800 –> 00:04:23,880
for 10,000 new inhabitants every year.

117
00:04:23,960 –> 00:04:25,240
We have to plan the infrastructure

118
00:04:25,320 –> 00:04:26,880
for 10,000 new inhabitants every year.

119
00:04:26,960 –> 00:04:28,840
That means that you have to densify.

120
00:04:29,120 –> 00:04:32,240
The great achievement
of urban development in past years

121
00:04:32,320 –> 00:04:35,040
has been the densification
of demographic growth.

122
00:04:35,960 –> 00:04:40,040
I think today
that a new debate is emerging

123
00:04:40,200 –> 00:04:43,640
and this new paradigm is the number 2.

124
00:04:44,640 –> 00:04:48,680
2 is the average rise in temperature

125
00:04:48,760 –> 00:04:52,440
which we know is going to occur
due to climate change.

126
00:04:52,520 –> 00:04:55,120
In cities this might even be
3 or 4 degrees.

127
00:04:55,560 –> 00:04:58,320
I think this is
what should become the driver

128
00:04:58,400 –> 00:05:00,600
of our new vision of urban development.

129
00:05:03,000 –> 00:05:05,560
The Field of Possibilities is about cities

130
00:05:05,640 –> 00:05:08,240
being the only places
where this is possible.

131
00:05:08,320 –> 00:05:10,000
Why? Because they are dense,

132
00:05:10,080 –> 00:05:12,360
they live of closeness,

133
00:05:12,440 –> 00:05:13,720
they live of human contact,

134
00:05:13,800 –> 00:05:15,080
they live of density

135
00:05:15,160 –> 00:05:16,880
and functional diversity.

136
00:05:16,960 –> 00:05:18,920
And everything we’ve done wrong

137
00:05:19,000 –> 00:05:20,160
in terms of urbanisation

138
00:05:20,240 –> 00:05:21,880
with functionalism,

139
00:05:21,960 –> 00:05:25,880
the act of putting different functions
into areas without allowing for diversity,

140
00:05:25,960 –> 00:05:27,960
makes alternative forms
of transport impossible.

141
00:05:28,040 –> 00:05:29,880
So the cities are fields of possibilities,

142
00:05:29,960 –> 00:05:31,760
they’re going to move
towards this possible

143
00:05:31,840 –> 00:05:34,040
because they have all the ingredients
for getting there.

144
00:05:34,120 –> 00:05:36,840
You still have to mix
the ingredients right for it to work.

145
00:05:36,920 –> 00:05:38,680
I think that we should
look at densification,

146
00:05:38,760 –> 00:05:41,320
for example in Brussels, more broadly.

147
00:05:41,520 –> 00:05:42,760
This is about the outer suburbs.

148
00:05:42,840 –> 00:05:44,520
We should examine, here too,

149
00:05:44,600 –> 00:05:46,920
what the possibilities
for densification are,

150
00:05:47,000 –> 00:05:51,160
so that all this densification
doesn’t take place in the same areas.

151
00:05:52,000 –> 00:05:54,360
Harnessed densification,

152
00:05:54,440 –> 00:05:55,880
that’s a good model for the future.

153
00:05:55,960 –> 00:05:57,840
I think that « circular construction »

154
00:05:57,920 –> 00:05:59,840
will become much more common.

155
00:05:59,920 –> 00:06:02,120
We can’t treat buildings

156
00:06:02,200 –> 00:06:04,120
like disposable products.

157
00:06:04,200 –> 00:06:07,120
We’re going to have to think
about how to reuse buildings,

158
00:06:07,200 –> 00:06:10,920
how to preserve older buildings,

159
00:06:11,000 –> 00:06:12,200
how to re-use the materials,

160
00:06:12,280 –> 00:06:16,560
but also how, in new builds,

161
00:06:16,640 –> 00:06:18,720
to plan for future adaptability.

162
00:06:18,800 –> 00:06:20,400
I think that circular construction

163
00:06:20,480 –> 00:06:22,720
is a very important theme for the future.

164
00:06:22,800 –> 00:06:24,920
I would like to show a few projects

165
00:06:25,000 –> 00:06:28,040
in which there are in fact two things

166
00:06:28,120 –> 00:06:29,920
that are changing in the cities.

167
00:06:30,360 –> 00:06:32,800
The first thing is the old division

168
00:06:32,880 –> 00:06:35,560
between home to work
and recreational traffic.

169
00:06:35,640 –> 00:06:37,760
This is a mono-functional scheme,

170
00:06:37,840 –> 00:06:39,800
that we’re moving more and more away from.

171
00:06:39,880 –> 00:06:42,720
All these functions are being more
and more mixed together.

172
00:06:42,800 –> 00:06:46,160
And it is very important to mix
in a small structure.

173
00:06:46,440 –> 00:06:48,960
Officially, it’s known as « mixed use »,

174
00:06:49,040 –> 00:06:50,520
I’m showing two projects on it.

175
00:06:50,600 –> 00:06:52,920
The other aspect that’s becoming

176
00:06:53,000 –> 00:06:54,600
more and more important

177
00:06:54,680 –> 00:06:59,360
is the monolithic look on buildings,

178
00:06:59,560 –> 00:07:02,040
a building that in fact hardly
interacts at all with its environment

179
00:07:02,120 –> 00:07:03,920
and is solely functional.

180
00:07:04,560 –> 00:07:07,000
This is also something
that we’re moving away from.

181
00:07:07,080 –> 00:07:09,200
Now, we’re designing buildings

182
00:07:09,400 –> 00:07:11,040
that have an identity.

183
00:07:11,120 –> 00:07:14,280
Finally, we want to mix together

184
00:07:14,360 –> 00:07:19,320
work, housing,
recreational elements, traffic,

185
00:07:19,400 –> 00:07:22,640
as well as education
in a small structure.

186
00:07:22,720 –> 00:07:26,240
We want to add to existing buildings

187
00:07:26,320 –> 00:07:28,240
new buildings that have a strong identity.

188
00:07:28,320 –> 00:07:30,320
I think that we should also work

189
00:07:30,400 –> 00:07:33,800
on the « urban heat island » effect
of the city.

190
00:07:33,880 –> 00:07:35,760
I think that we’re going
to have to provide

191
00:07:35,840 –> 00:07:41,320
more green spaces, dispersed greenery,
in the city in the coming years.

192
00:07:41,400 –> 00:07:43,720
These are all changes

193
00:07:43,800 –> 00:07:47,160
that are intended to prepare our cities

194
00:07:47,240 –> 00:07:51,560
for the climate change that is happening.

195
00:07:58,360 –> 00:07:59,680
The problem in our regions,

196
00:07:59,760 –> 00:08:01,800
this is especially the case in Brussels,

197
00:08:01,880 –> 00:08:03,480
is that institutional governance

198
00:08:03,560 –> 00:08:05,360
creates territorial tension,

199
00:08:05,440 –> 00:08:07,960
territorial competition
between three regions

200
00:08:08,040 –> 00:08:11,640
who each want to obtain the maximum
number of residents, jobs, etc.,

201
00:08:11,720 –> 00:08:13,800
and unfortunately,
this is not very compatible.

202
00:08:13,880 –> 00:08:16,720
But Brussels must take
its future into its hands

203
00:08:16,800 –> 00:08:19,680
and enhance its intrinsic quality

204
00:08:19,760 –> 00:08:21,360
as a metropolitan city,

205
00:08:21,440 –> 00:08:22,400
as a global city.

206
00:08:22,480 –> 00:08:25,320
Walloon Brabant is suffocating

207
00:08:25,400 –> 00:08:27,160
from its own mobility,

208
00:08:27,240 –> 00:08:30,680
because we forget that most of the people
who live in these areas

209
00:08:30,760 –> 00:08:32,000
no longer come to Brussels,

210
00:08:32,080 –> 00:08:33,800
they work in Walloon Brabant

211
00:08:33,880 –> 00:08:36,320
or they work from Walloon Brabant
going towards Flemish Brabant

212
00:08:36,400 –> 00:08:37,680
but it’s said they connect with Brussels.

213
00:08:37,760 –> 00:08:38,600
That’s not true.

214
00:08:38,680 –> 00:08:39,880
They connect with the Brussels Ring

215
00:08:39,960 –> 00:08:41,920
which is kind of the ring of Belgium

216
00:08:42,000 –> 00:08:43,240
and so they contribute

217
00:08:43,320 –> 00:08:45,040
to this metropolitan immobility

218
00:08:45,120 –> 00:08:46,400
that is suffocating,

219
00:08:46,480 –> 00:08:48,080
just about everywhere, Brussels,

220
00:08:48,160 –> 00:08:49,400
and not many people know it,

221
00:08:49,480 –> 00:08:51,600
but in fact there are fewer
cars in circulation

222
00:08:51,680 –> 00:08:53,760
in Brussels today
than there were 10 or 20 years ago.

223
00:08:54,120 –> 00:08:55,920
But there is more congestion

224
00:08:56,000 –> 00:08:57,760
because we also made a choice

225
00:08:57,840 –> 00:08:59,320
to rebalance the public space

226
00:08:59,400 –> 00:09:01,920
and make more room
for public transport, cycles,

227
00:09:02,000 –> 00:09:05,120
which have made things change,
so inevitably

228
00:09:05,200 –> 00:09:07,320
in Walloon Brabant, in Flemish Brabant,

229
00:09:07,400 –> 00:09:08,800
things are going to get worse.

230
00:09:08,880 –> 00:09:10,240
People can carry on,

231
00:09:10,320 –> 00:09:11,760
can carry on choosing to relocate there,

232
00:09:11,840 –> 00:09:15,040
businesses, citizens relocating there
but in full knowledge of the facts.

233
00:09:15,120 –> 00:09:16,000
Things are only going

234
00:09:16,080 –> 00:09:17,400
to get much worse

235
00:09:17,480 –> 00:09:18,680
and access to the cities

236
00:09:18,760 –> 00:09:20,760
will have to be other than by car

237
00:09:20,840 –> 00:09:22,840
because the cities are going
to need to be protected.

238
00:09:23,520 –> 00:09:26,120
I think we should be concerned
about the source

239
00:09:26,200 –> 00:09:28,480
of the construction materials we use,

240
00:09:28,560 –> 00:09:32,000
meaning about the energy that is used

241
00:09:32,080 –> 00:09:33,760
to produce them or not,

242
00:09:33,840 –> 00:09:36,720
about the carbon footprint on our planet

243
00:09:36,800 –> 00:09:39,040
and, as is already the case with food,

244
00:09:39,120 –> 00:09:41,600
architects should be steered

245
00:09:41,680 –> 00:09:45,480
towards the conscious use
of sustainable materials.

246
00:09:45,560 –> 00:09:47,320
So on this basis,

247
00:09:47,400 –> 00:09:50,200
wood is a renewable material

248
00:09:50,280 –> 00:09:52,040
and is something that could be of interest

249
00:09:52,120 –> 00:09:53,760
to our cities in the future

250
00:09:53,840 –> 00:09:55,800
because when you construct in wood,

251
00:09:55,880 –> 00:09:57,800
you don’t necessarily have to show it.

252
00:09:57,880 –> 00:10:01,000
I think that
a building’s supporting structure

253
00:10:01,080 –> 00:10:03,360
or even a high building,

254
00:10:03,440 –> 00:10:07,600
can be done in wood
without the façade of this building

255
00:10:07,680 –> 00:10:10,120
looking visibly made of wood, etc.

256
00:10:10,200 –> 00:10:12,560
So here we really want to increase

257
00:10:12,640 –> 00:10:15,680
the amount of wood used in construction

258
00:10:15,760 –> 00:10:18,680
so as to increase usage of the biomass

259
00:10:18,760 –> 00:10:21,040
and to leave,
after the life of this building,

260
00:10:21,120 –> 00:10:22,960
because we must also think about

261
00:10:23,040 –> 00:10:25,840
what happens
after the building has been used,

262
00:10:25,920 –> 00:10:28,520
not a negative trace,

263
00:10:28,600 –> 00:10:32,160
neither at the environmental
nor the planetary level.

264
00:10:32,240 –> 00:10:35,280
With Yves Weinand, we developed
a quite ambitious project

265
00:10:35,360 –> 00:10:36,600
for the city of Liège:

266
00:10:36,680 –> 00:10:39,560
the new « Halle des Foires » in Coronmeuse.

267
00:10:41,000 –> 00:10:43,440
That was a competition we didn’t win

268
00:10:43,520 –> 00:10:45,640
but it did enable us to carry out

269
00:10:45,720 –> 00:10:47,960
a quite extensive study

270
00:10:48,040 –> 00:10:51,280
on the application of this research

271
00:10:51,360 –> 00:10:53,800
at the University to construction,

272
00:10:53,880 –> 00:10:56,600
for a project
that could have characterised

273
00:10:56,680 –> 00:10:59,200
the future of the City of Liège

274
00:10:59,280 –> 00:11:02,120
in a new dynamic, new industry

275
00:11:02,440 –> 00:11:06,840
that replaces traditional
metallurgical industry.

276
00:11:06,920 –> 00:11:09,880
Here, we’re scanning real trees,

277
00:11:10,120 –> 00:11:12,760
we know the precise description

278
00:11:12,840 –> 00:11:15,160
of the natural form of this tree

279
00:11:15,240 –> 00:11:17,360
and we manage to connect this form

280
00:11:17,440 –> 00:11:20,600
to the eventual placing of a piece

281
00:11:20,680 –> 00:11:22,920
in an architectural construction.

282
00:11:23,200 –> 00:11:27,320
So we proposed a large-scale building

283
00:11:27,400 –> 00:11:30,560
in which we preserve all the elements

284
00:11:30,640 –> 00:11:32,320
such as they exist in nature

285
00:11:32,400 –> 00:11:35,000
to insert them as load-bearing elements

286
00:11:35,080 –> 00:11:36,840
like for example a lattice beam

287
00:11:36,920 –> 00:11:39,000
or post-assembled pillars.

288
00:11:39,680 –> 00:11:42,280
And with that, we manage to drop the price

289
00:11:42,360 –> 00:11:44,960
for example for just
a load-bearing structure,

290
00:11:45,040 –> 00:11:46,520
to a quarter of the normal price.

291
00:11:46,600 –> 00:11:48,600
It’s very attractive indeed

292
00:11:48,680 –> 00:11:49,960
to get a one cubic metre of wood

293
00:11:50,040 –> 00:11:51,800
for around €130

294
00:11:51,880 –> 00:11:53,240
compared with glued plywood

295
00:11:53,320 –> 00:11:56,080
at around €1,500 per cubic metre.

296
00:11:56,160 –> 00:11:59,600
For me, the opportunities for architecture

297
00:11:59,680 –> 00:12:02,040
can be found in creating added value,

298
00:12:02,120 –> 00:12:05,880
not in the pure exercise
of the architectural profession

299
00:12:05,960 –> 00:12:08,160
but in looking further
than the actual discipline.

300
00:12:08,240 –> 00:12:10,000
This means that you also have
to be interested

301
00:12:10,080 –> 00:12:13,880
in the development of buildings,

302
00:12:13,960 –> 00:12:16,280
the financing, the usage,

303
00:12:16,360 –> 00:12:18,560
the future, and very importantly,

304
00:12:18,640 –> 00:12:23,640
how flexible the buildings
will be in the future,

305
00:12:24,840 –> 00:12:26,600
and, also very important, knowledge.

306
00:12:26,680 –> 00:12:28,240
Knowledge of the regulations,

307
00:12:28,880 –> 00:12:30,400
knowledge of the laws

308
00:12:30,480 –> 00:12:32,120
that are going to change.

309
00:12:32,200 –> 00:12:35,200
These 3 things, the future, flexibility,

310
00:12:36,240 –> 00:12:38,320
the fact of looking further
than the building,

311
00:12:38,400 –> 00:12:40,640
and also at what happens
before the process begins,

312
00:12:40,720 –> 00:12:42,440
and at the same time having
a lot of knowledge,

313
00:12:42,520 –> 00:12:44,320
I think that these are
the most important things

314
00:12:44,400 –> 00:12:48,360
for architecture in general.